S. Berliner, III's sbiii.com Railroad Continuation Page 3 keywords = rail road way model train Z HO scale Ztrack Western Fruit Express WFEX Great Northern GN LIRR Long Island Baltimore Chesepeake Ohio B&O C&O steam diesel boxcab locomotive restoration Pennsylvania Pennsy PRR Kiesel Horseshoe Muleshoe Curve Berlinerwerke Vest Pocket Degnon Brooklyn Eastern District Terminal BEDT Marion River Carry Adirondack Raquette Lake New York Boston Westchester Atlantic Cross Harbor Dock Anhalt

Updated:   02 May 2017; 19:10 ET
[Page created 21 Apr 2000; converted 28 Jul 2011>

    original AT&T Worldnet Website begun 30 May 1996.]
URL:  http://sbiii.com/rr3.html
[was at "home.att.net/~Berliner-Ultrasonics/rr3.html"]

S. Berliner, III
Consultant in Ultrasonic Processing
"changing materials with high-intensity sound"

[consultation is on a fee basis]

Technical and Historical Writer, Oral Historian
Popularizer of Science and Technology
Rail, Auto, Air, Ordnance, and Model Enthusiast
Light-weight Linguist, Lay Minister, and Putative Philosopher



note - The vast bulk of my massive Web presence (over 485 pages) had been hosted by AT&T's WorldNet service since 30 May 1996; they dropped WorldNet effective 31 Mar 2010 and I have been scrambling to transfer everything.  Everything's saved but all the links have to be changed, mostly by hand.  See my sbiii.com Transfer Page for any updates on this tedious process.


S. Berliner, III's

sbiii.com

Railroad Continuation Page 3

RAILROADING



RAILROADING
Continuation Page 3


NOTE:  Page size was limited by HTML to 30kB; thus, I was forced to add this continuation page and continuation pages to fit the lengthy Horseshoe Curve and Berlinerwerke sagas and relocate the Vest Pocket Railroads You Can Model.

NOTE:  In addition, I was also forced to move Long Island Rail Road and related Long Island railroad information onto separate LIRR continuation pages.


INDEX:

(truncated to save space - see main RR page)

Railroad Index Page   ListingAdded (12 Nov 2016)

On the main RR page:
  Link to ALCo Love Song (moved 16 Dec 99 to it's own separate page).
  EMD Paean.
  New York, Boston & Westchester Railroad.
  Standard Gauge

On Railroad Continuation Page 1:
  TRAIN SHED Cyclopedia.
  1941 Loco Prices.

On Railroad Continuation Page 2:
  RR Miscellany, including:

A and B vs. F Ends.
Southern Railroad.
B&O and C&O.
Bering Strait Tunnel.

On this continuation page 3:
(Material moved from Railroad Page 2 on 21 Apr 00)
  Oddities.

including a Staten Island Trackless Trolley!
  Articulateds (and Duplexiii).
  Degrees of Curvature.
  Ghost Train.
  RR Questions (Help)

On Railroad Continuation Page 4:
  Anhalter Bahnhof - world's largest trainshed.
  Trolleys (about nomenclature) {moved from BHRA page on 10 Feb 2005}.

On other pages:

ALCO-GE-IR Boxcabs,
ALCO-GE-IR Survivor Boxcabs continuation page, with roster, and
ALCO-GE-IR Survivor Boxcabs continuation page, with notes,
ALCO-GE-IR CNJ #1000 Survivor Boxcab (the first production unit sold),
ALCO-GE-IR Boxcabs Continuation Page, including LIRR #401,
  the world's first production diesel road switcher, and
Ingersoll-Rand Boxcabs, with a 1929 I-R boxcab brochure,
  and I-R and GE Instruction Sheets for a 1929 600HP, 100-ton unit.
Other Boxcabs, with a boxcabs bibliography.
S. Berliner, III's Pennsylvania Railroad Page,

with THE SOUTH PENN RR,
and PRR Modeling (Penn Line/Cary/Bowser)
Berlinerwerke Saga (HO-Scale, included with Horseshoe Curve information)
and continuation pages with prototype and HO/N/S scale dimensions,
  satellite photo, pictures, description of the Horseshoe Curve.
Brooklyn Eastern District Terminal Railroad
EMD - Electro-Motive Division of GM - models, etc.,
including EMD engines EMD may never have dreamed of,
such as the great DDP45!

Railroads You can Model,

Marion River Carry Railroad* (now on its own page).
    Vest Pocket Railroads You Can Model:
Degnon Terminal Railroad, plus
    Murrer's Sidings,
    Kearney Sidings, and
    Blissville/Laurel Hill (and Maspeth and Fresh Pond).
    Vest Pocket Railroads You Can Model - continued
Atlas Terminal RR

Oyster Bay marine turntable

Schnable and other Giant RR Cars.
Schnable Cars Continuation Page.
The Whyte System of Classification (4-4-0, 4-6-2, B-B, etc.).
MODEL RAILROADING

plus Z-Scale (1:220) Model Railroading.
    Sub-Z Scale - 1:440 and even 1:900 Tiny Trains!
Long Island Rail Road
LIRR Continuation Page 3:
 Victorian Stations Still Standing on the LIRR
    (with dimensions).
Long Island Railroads
  including:
    Long Island Railroads (old and new flags)
        [with a link to the NYCRR (Hell Gate)]
    LIRR FIRSTS.
  LIRR Bibliography.

Long Island Rail Road Historical Society Home Page.

Brooklyn Historic Railway Association and the legendary LIRR Atlantic Avenue Tunnel.

PRR Horseshoe and Muleshoe Curves
    minor write up here; on separate page with Berlinerwerke Saga
Schnabel heavy duty freight cars
    on Model Railroads page (now with photos!)

RR Miscellany, including:

B&O and C&O.

Railroad Eagles - my/Dave Morrison's page about the Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal eagles.

Z-Scale (1:220) Model Railroading.
    Z-Scale Page 3 with

Half-Z Scale - 1:440 Tiny Trains and even 1:900 Tiniest Trains!

HOW TO BOOT A STEAM LOCOMOTIVE or How to hostle without really tiring -
    (Firing up a cold oil burner).


Give Credit Where Credit is Due Department

See the main rr page.


ODDITIES

I have so many oddities on my RR pages I'm losing track (there's that pun, again!) but here is an oddity beyond comparison, and it's for real, THE PATIALA STATE MONORAIL TRAMWAY, "possibly the world's most obscure railway...", courtesy of D. Dickens.   new-link (02 May 2017)

Well, I don't know (see my own Marion River Carry Railroad page as to obscure), but odd? - oh, yeah!

Go to the new rr page 4 for the Anhalter Bahnhof in Berlin [the largest trainshed in existence], where I saw a German 2-10-0 Decapod and tender which an "artist" (read "vandal") had welded together and plopped upside down (wheels up) as some sort of misguided monument!

There's a type of turntable you won't normally see (not that most railfans "normally" see any turntables - we are triply blessèd here on Long Island), it's a QUARTER-TURN marine turntable.  I wasn't sure if it belonged here or on my Naval and Maritime pages; I opted for here, but moved it to my Model RR page 7, with links back, there, and on my LIRR pages.

It's at the old Jakobson Shipyard (Jake's) in Oyster Bay, where Loco #35 i be restored, and hard by where the new Oyster Bay Railroad Museum is being built.  Jake's is where so very many RR tugboats originated, those with the rakishly canted foredeck and level wheelhouse with matching roof.

That estimable Entemologist (the indefatigable Bernie Ente) strikes again!  This time, he came up with this undated postcard:

SI Trackless Trolley
(Image courtesy of B. Ente 2000 - all rights reserved)

Technically (the Master Nitpicker speaks), it is NOT a trolley but a trackless tramcar or electric bus; a trolley(car) has a little 2- or 4-wheeled cart (the trolley) running up on top of the wires with a flexible conductor trailing down.

Now, here's an oddity it's hard not to love; it's a 1917 White Rail Motor Car which I stumbled across at the Whippany Railway Museum, "Morris County's Railroad Museum", in Hanover Township, while tooling across New Jersey on 01 Aug 00  She is a recreation of the original Morristown & Erie Railroad's bus #10, built from the original chassis, wheels, and axles and the motor, transmission, radiator, and hood of a 1924-vintage White-built firetruck and the body from a 1920's era autobus (there doesn't appear to be any cowl).

Morristown & Erie #10 Whippany
(Photo 01 Aug 00 by and © 2000 S. Berliner, III - all rights reserved.)

The body isn't even vaguely similar to the original but - hey - it looks just GREAT!


Articulated Locomotives
and Duplexii

Articulated and duplex locomotives belong to the class of multi-cylindered locomotives (speaking of more than two, really four or more).  We won't even discuss single-cylinder locos here (there were such, 'way back)!  There were a number of three-cylinder locomotives but they had their cylinders side-by-side or nearly so.  Articulated and duplex-drive locomotives are distinguished by having two or three independant drive systems (engines) under a common boiler (or boiler-and-tender).  Articulateds are unique in that they have a joint between the front and rear engine, allowing a shorter rigid wheelbase for better curving.  Duplex locos, on the other hand, have two separate engines mounted on a common frame, thus they have a rigid and quite long wheelbase but separated drive.  The B&O bought the first American articulated, their #2400, "Old Maude", an 0-6-6-0 first unveiled at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition:

B&O

Many weird variations followed, few odder than this giant of the Camelbacks/Mother Hubbards, Erie's ALCo #2600, built to conquer the Susquehanna grade:

Erie Camelback #2600

Another really odd arrangement had a regular loco pulling a tender perched on an ancient engine from a scrapped loco; see the triplex, below - like that abberation, they were soon split apart and for the same reason noted below under Terminology.  I had always thought these were pipe dreams until I ran across this SR Mike and found that there were seven of these beasts, starting in 1915, plus a 2-10-2 so "kit-bashed", and also in other wheel arrangements:

Erie Camelback #2600

Talk about weird!  The Santa Fé went bananas and hinged not only the frames but also the boilers, with three ingenious (if unworkable) versions, one with a ball joint and two with bellows connecting the two halves of the boiler (forget it, Charlie - the ball leaked and the bellows cracked!):

AT&SF Jointed Boilers #1157 & #3322

Want even weirder?  These 2-8-8-8-2 triplex locos actually worked well as pushers on the Gulf Summit hill near Susquehanna but their firemen just couldn't keep up with their insatiable demand for steam for their giant boilers and cylinders.  The Erie started it with the #5014 "Matt S. Shay" of 1914 and followed it in 1916 with two more but they all got split apart to make conventional locos:

Erie Matt Shay Triplex #5014
(H. L. Broadbelt collection - no other provenance given)

The Virginian, another coal hauler, came up with a slightly weirder 2-8-8-8-4 in 1916, #700, which met the same fate:

Virginian Triplex #700
(H. L. Broadbelt collection - no other provenance given)

Both of these photos show the crease of the book (and staples); sorry, I was not willing to break the book just for this page.

HEY!  Weird?  I never realized before just how weird!  There was a FOURTH pair of cylinders on a low-speed booster on that Virginian's four-wheel trailing truck under the rear of the tender!  EIGHT CYLINDERS!

Both the Santa Fé and the Virginian went still another step off the deep end with 2-10-10-2 locos (really loco)!  The SF took ten pairs of Decapods and stuck them together in 1911 as their #3000-series; by 1915, they'd been rebuilt into 2-10-2 Texas locos.  ALCo built ten even bigger monsters for the Virginian, with the biggest maximum boiler diameter ever (118½") and biggest low-pressure cylinder diameter ever (48"):

SF & VGN 2-10-10-2 #3000 & #802

The Pennsy had to get into the act with a gigantic, single-expansion 2-8-8-0 Class HC1of 1919 that, like its electric counterpart, "Big Liz", was simply too powerful for the drawbars and wooden cars of the era and was set aside:

PRR HC-1 2-8-8-0 #3700

After more different types than you can shake a stick at, of all sizes, even cab-forwards and skyline casings, we came finally to the culmination of the breed in the competitors for "biggest", the Northern Pacific Yellowstone 2-8-8-4 Z-5 class (largest firebox and boiler ever), the DM&IR Yellowstones, the C&O 2-6-6-6 Allegheny (highest starting TE), and the Union Pacific's famed ALCo "Big Boy", the only 4-8-8-4 (fastest):

NP #5011 Z-5 (Harold Vollrath collection - no other provenance given)

UP Big Boy #4000

None, though, are as beautiful to my eyes as the B&O EM-1 Yellowstone, limited in size by available clearances but unmatched for design elegance; here, from the B&O/C&O section on page 2 is a classic view of an EM-1 from page 22 of Wayner:

B&O EM-1 Yellowstone #7823{?}
(Bert Pennypacker photo - no other provenance given)

and, thanks to the Denver Public Library, from their Western History/Genealogy Photograph Collection's fabulous Otto Perry Collection:

B&O EM-1 Yellowstone OCP
Baltimore & Ohio locomotive, engine number 669, engine type 2-8-8-4
Call Number OP-2409 - - Otto C. Perry photo
Three-quarter view of right side of engine, from front end;
pole.  Photographed: Fairmont, W. Va., May 1957

(These photos, except for the Perry photos, are from Wayner Publications's undated
"Giants of the Rails - An Articulated Steam Pictorial",
and have no attribution or provenance unless otherwise noted.)

[I need a tender for my HO Akane EM-1 (ca. 1975) - has anyone got one to spare?]

Terminology - we should point out another distinction; Anatole Mallet developed the articulated concept in France with small locomotives with jointed frames and small rear cylinders using high pressure steam directly from the boiler and then scavenging the exhaust steam to feed huge (oversized) low-pressure cylinders at the front.  This is what gave rise to the appelation "Mallet" (pronounced "Malley"), more misused than properly applied, for double-expansion engines.  The first large divided-drive, single-expansion loco was that giant PRR HC1; the EM-1, Big Boy, and most modern articulateds were of this latter type.  Mention must be made, however, of the truly strange porting of the triplexii; the right center (high-pressure) cylinder fed the two forward cylinders, while the left center fed the two rear cylinders under the tender.  However, therein lies anothe rub against triplex locos.  As the fuel and water in the tender was used up, the tender got lighter and so the drivers slipped more readily than those under the boiler; the same detriment held for the tender drives noted above.

Now, let us explore the wonderful world of duplex (rigid wheelbase divided drive) locomotives.  The B&O initiated the type with their 4-4-4-4 "George Emerson" #5600 of 1937, never repeated (it had opposed cylinders and the rear ones accumulated road grit and also were right up against the firebox):

B&O Geo Emerson #5600

B&O Geo Emerson #5600 OCP Denver Public Library, Western History Collection)
[Baltimore & Ohio locomotive, engine number 5600, engine type 4-4-4-4
Call Number OP-2521 - Otto C. Perry photo
New York World's Fair, "Geo. W. Emerson". Photographed: New York, August 5, 1939.]

but emulated widely by the Pennsy, starting with a giant, one-of-a-kind 1939 6-4-4-6 streamliner with 84"(!) drivers, #the "Big Engine", S1 #6100, that motored endlessly on rollers at the 1939-40 World's Fair in NYC, another one-of-a-kind, the unsuccessful Q1 4-6-4-4 freighter (#6130 of 1942) with all the drawbacks of the B&O loco, a very successful run of 26 4-4-6-4 Q2 <8,000HP freighters (#6131 of 1944, and #6175-99, 1944-45), and finally a production series of supposedly-slippery 4-4-4-4 T1 Raymond-Loewy-streamlined 80"-drivered duplexes for high-speed passenger service (#6110 and #6111 of 1942 and 25 units, #5500-49 in 1944-45), just in time for full dieselization!

The Pennsy passenger units, the giant S1 and the glamorous T1s, are widely pictured but here's the "Big Engine", the Q1 (as originally streamlined), the first T1 #6100 (being delivered at Baldwin), and the workaday 8,000HP Q2 4-4-6-4 #6177:   rev.gif (07 Feb 2012)

PRR S1 #6100

PRR Q1 #6130

PRR T1 #6110
(Wikipedia - no other provenance given)

PRR Q2

- - - * - - -

In spite of all the wonderful successes and wonderful failures of articulateds and duplexii of all shapes, sizes and configurations, my all time favorite, after the B&O EM-1 Yellowstone, has to be my little 2-6-6-2T logging tank malley, 1929 Crown Willamette #12, a brass NWSL HO gem ca. 1960; the prototype is shown below in all her glory:

Crown Willamette #12
(Harold Vollrath collection - no other provenance given)

(These photos, except the Perry photos or as otherwise noted, are also from Wayner Publications's undated
"Giants of the Rails - An Articulated Steam Pictorial",
and have no attribution or provenance except as noted.)


Degrees of Curvature

Track curvature is given in "Degrees of Curvature", a simple enough concept if you know that it means the angle that is made between a tangent 100' long and the curve:

DegreeCurvature
(Diagram 30 Sep 08 by and © 2008 S. Berliner, III - all rights reserved) new.gif (30 Sep 05)

Track length in curves, unfortunately, is also given in degrees of arc (which mathematical geniuses can figure out by the radius of curvature and the degree of arc of the curve).

In the following table, the Degree of Curvature (α°) is shown for the equivalent radius (at the track centerline):

DEG FT HO" N" Z" DEG FT HO" N" Z"
1° = 5,730' 789.4 429.7 312.5 || 16° = 359.3' 49.5 26.9 19.6
2° = 2,865' 394.7 217.3 158 1 || 17° = 338.3' 46.6 25.4 18.5
3° = 1,910' 428.3 233.2 169.6 || 18° = 318.2' 43.8 23.9 17.4
4° = 1,432.5' 197.4 107 4 78.1 || 19° = 300.8' 41.4 22.6 16.4
5° = 1,146' 159.9 85.9 62.5 || 20° = 286.2' 39.4 21.5 15.6
6° = 955' 131 5 71.6 52.1 || 21° = 272.8' 37.6 20.5 14.9
7° = 818.6' 112.8 61.4 44.7 || 22° = 260.1' 35.8 19.5 14.2
8° = 717' 98.8 53.8 39.1 || 23° = 249' 34.3 18.6 13.6
9° = 637' 87.8 47 8 34.7 || 24° = 238.7' 32.9 17.9 13
10° = 573' 78.9 43 31.3 || 25° = 229.1' 31.6 17.2 12.5
11° = 521' 71 8 39.1 28.4 || 26° = 220.2' 30.3 16.5 19.5
12° = 477' 65.7 35.8 26 || 27° = 212.1' 29.2 15.9 11.6
13° = 441' 60.8 33.1 24 1 || 28° = 204.3' 28.1 15.3 11.1
14° = 409.5' 56.4 30.6 22.3 || 29° = 197.5' 27.2 14.8 10.8
15° = 381' 52.5 28.6 20.8 || 30° = 191' 26.3 14.3 10.4
note-rt - table revised and increased per Combustion Engineering info. ca. 1960     rev.gif (29 Dec 2011)

  For the mathematician and modeler, R (radius, in proto. ft.) = 50 / sin [0.5(° curv.)]

R (radius, in HO scale ft.) = {50 / sin [0.5(° curv.)]} ÷ 7.26

R (radius, in HO scale in.) = 50 / sin [0.5(° curv.)] ÷ 87.1

R (radius, in N scale ft.) = {50 / sin [0.5(° curv.)]} ÷ 13.33

R (radius, in N scale in.) = 50 / sin [0.5(° curv.)] ÷ 160

R (radius, in Z scale ft.) = {50 / sin [0.5(° curv.)]} ÷ 18.33

R (radius, in Z scale in.) = 50 / sin [0.5(° curv.)] ÷ 220

In other scales, go figure!

As promised, I've added the equivalents of curved snap track sections in HO, N, and Z:

HO Atlas Snap Track 15" = 108' 10½" = {tbs}°
HO Atlas Snap Track 18" = 130'  7¾" = {tbs}°
HO Atlas Snap Track 22" = 159'  8¼" = {tbs}°

N Atlas Snap Track  9¾" = 130'   = {tbs}°
N Atlas Snap Track 11" = 146' 8" = {tbs}°

Z Märklin Track 145mm ( ~5¾") = 104' 75/8" = {tbs}°
Z Rokuhan Track 170mm ( ~6¾") = 122' 8½" = {tbs}° [the "missing" curve!]   added (07 Feb 2012)
Z Märklin Track 195mm ( ~711/16") = 140' 9" = {tbs}°
Z Märklin Track 220mm ( ~811/16") = 158' 9" = {tbs}°
Z Märklin Track 490mm (~18¼" = 353' 8")   = {tbs}°
    (this last is a substitution curve for turnouts.)

Just for example, the nominal curvature of the famed (former Pennsy) Horseshoe Curve near Altoona, Pennsylvania, is about 9° 12½' or some 630', which is about 87"R in HO, 47¼"R in N, and 34½"R in Z [more accurately, the lower (eastern) segment, which appears to be some 100.65° long, is 9° of curvature and the upper (western) segment, which is some 119.35° long, is 9.25° of curvature].


Ghost Train

At 23:55 on the night of 08 Jul 1999, I was traveling eastward on Route 4 just east of Fairhaven, Vermont, in pitch darkness, when suddenly a brilliantly lit westbound passenger train streaked by close off to starboard!  Now, any train I've ever ridden at night has it's interior lighting out or dimmed, so this really startled me.  Two days later, coming down through Chatham, New York, there was CR SD80MAC #4018 on display for a fair and a local afficionado told me it was probably an Amtrakker being sent back empty for the next day's busy period.


On 04 Sep 1999, I saw "The Iron Giant", Warner Bros.'s fabulous animation; it had two glaring technical faults, one of which was that the robot ate a piece out of the railroad track so that he could not have fitted the ends back together as he did just before the wreck.  Also, the steam engine was pulling a string of hoppers and so would have been most unlikely to have been a GS-4 or similarly-styled streamliner as shown!

  (The other was a naval blunder.)

The Master Nitpicker strikes again!

Speaking of nitpicking, there was a book (May 1976), entitled Csardas (the Hungarian dance), set in turn-of-the-century Vienna, on the jacket of which was an elegant couple in evening dress of the era, standing in a magnificent European train shed, and the loco in the background is a giant Lima Berkshire (NKP or similar)!!!  No less ridiculous but still WRONG!  I finally found a full cover and it turns out to be the Reading T-1 4-8-4 Northern #2124! (27 Apr 2014)

Csardas Full Cover

#2124 was "the Queen of the Iron Horse Rambles" and then was sold to Steamtown USA, now owned by the National Park Service's Steamtown National Historic Site.  By the way, no elegant couple on that version of the cover; she's in peasant dress and he's a Hussar!  Note also the U.S.-style baggage cart!

As a matter of fact, "turn of the century" meant ca. 1900 and #2124 hadn't even been converted by the Reading Company from big Class I-10sa 2-8-0 Consolidation #2044 until Jan 1947! (01 May 2014)


RR Questions (HELP!)

Anyone know more about the SI trackless trolleybus (above)?

Here are some photos a friend took in 1984 which I've assumed were shot at the New Jersey Museum of Transportation's Pine Creek Railroad at Allaire State Park in Wall Township, New Jersey.  The problem is that the loco road numbers don't match anything there that I can find (although the Pine Creek is narrow gauge):

1984pPic1Porter 1984pPic3Shay 1984pPic2Plymouth
[1984 photos by friend of SB,III - all rights reserved]
(click on thimbnails for larger images)

TWO number Nines?  One apprears to be a Porter 0-4-0T and the other a Shay or similar geared lokey; the third is a tiny Plymouth diesel.   added (12 Nov 2016)

There is a request for help about some NY-supplied Uruguaian steam(-cum-i.c.) railcars; see the end of Steam Boxcabs on my Boxcabs page 5.


Artist and fellow NRHS/Long Island Sunrise Trail Chapter member George L. Wybenga is so taken with cabooses (cabeese? - hacks, crummys, cabin cars, etc.) that he specializes in limning them and has a Website, cabooseart.com where you can see his vast array of cabooses from many varied roads, among them the LIRR.  Here, by his specific permission, is his painting of LIRR hack #14, just as an example of his work:

GLW LIRR Caboose #14
[painting by and © G. L. Wybenga, by permission - all rights reserved]

You can see all of George's paintings on his site, where you can order copies in various sizes and formats.  Scroll through to page 5 for nine LIRR paintings (page 7 for PRR cabins).



Steam lovers, see my Science and Technology page!  Ah, the power of steam!

There is an incredible simulation program by Charlie Dockstadter on steam valve gear available on the Alaska Live Steamers VALVE GEAR ON THE COMPUTER page.


You may wish to visit the Railroad Continuation Page, et seq.

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of this series of Railroad pages.


LEGACY

  What happens to all this when I DIE or (heaven forfend!) lose interest?  See LEGACY.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE

See Copyright Notice on primary home page.



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