S. Berliner, III's sbiii.com Whyte System Railroad Page keywords = Whyte system classification rail road way steam diesel electric turbine locomotive train Berlinerwerke

Updated:  29 Oct 2016; xx:xx ET
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    original AT&T Worldnet Website begun 30 May 1996.]

URL:  http://sbiii.com/whytesys.html
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S. Berliner, III
Consultant in Ultrasonic Processing
"changing materials with high-intensity sound"

[consultation is on a fee basis]

Technical and Historical Writer, Oral Historian
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Rail, Auto, Air, Ordnance, and Model Enthusiast
Light-weight Linguist, Lay Minister, and Putative Philosopher



note - The vast bulk of my massive Web presence (over 485 pages) had been hosted by AT&T's WorldNet service since 30 May 1996; they dropped WorldNet effective 31 Mar 2010 and I have been scrambling to transfer everything.  Everything's saved but all the links have to be changed, mostly by hand.  See my sbiii.com Transfer Page for any updates on this tedious process.


S. Berliner, III's

sbiii.com

WHYTE SYSTEM

Railroad Page

RAILROADING



The WHYTE SYSTEM of Classification
of Locomotives


INDEX:

On this page:

  The WHYTE SYSTEM of Classification of Locomotives.

  NOTES on the Whyte System.

  A "Whyte" System for Electric Locomotives.

  A "Whyte" System for Diesel-Electric (and Turbine-Electric Locomotives.

On other "lead" pages (link onwards from these):

Railroads.

ALCO-GE-IR Boxcabs.

Model Railroading.

Long Island Rail Road.

S. Berliner, III's Pennsylvania Railroad Page.

PRR Horseshoe and Muleshoe Curves.

Z-Scale (1:220) Model Railroading.


Kudos to Wes Barris, whose North American Steam Locomotives is one of the finest RR sites in existence, covering both original engines and survivors, and from whose similar page I drew some information to supplement my original 1990 list.


F. M. Whyte devised this system for categorizing the wheel arrangements of steam locomotives around the turn of the last century; it has been amplified, modified, and amended but still serves.

It starts with a count of all wheels of a locomotive, from front to back; I'm using lower case "o"s for pilot (/-) and trailing wheels and upper case "O"s for drivers, for a few examples, just to give you the idea and as a quick reference to the most popular types:

American   /-ooOO     4-4-0 ¦ Mogul      /-oOOO      2-6-0  ¦ Yellowstone  /-oOOOO-OOOOoo      2-8-8-4
10-Wheeler /-ooOOO    4-6-0 ¦ Prairie    /-oOOOo     2-6-2  ¦ Allegheny    /-oOOO-OOOooo       2-6-6-6
Atlantic   /-ooOOo    4-4-2 ¦ Mikado     /-oOOOOo    2-8-2  ¦ Challenger   /-ooOOO-OOOoo       4-6-6-4
Pacific    /-ooOOOo   4-6-2 ¦ Decapod    /-oOOOOO    2-10-0 ¦ Big Boy      /-ooOOOO-OOOOoo     4-8-8-4
Hudson     /-ooOOOoo  4-6-4 ¦ Santa Fe   /-oOOOOOo   2-10-2 ¦ PRR S1       /-oooOO-OOooo       6-4-4-6
Mountain   /-ooOOOOo  4-8-2 ¦ Texas      /-oOOOOOoo  2-10-4 ¦ Erie Triplex /-oOOOO-OOOO-OOOOo  2-8-8-8-2
Northern   /-ooOOOOoo 4-8-4 ¦ Union Pac. /-ooOOOOOOo 4-12-2 ¦ Vgn. Triplex /-oOOOO-OOOO-OOOOoo 2-8-8-8-4
Linn Wescott (or someone else) championed using a "+" for the articulation between units, such that the UP Big Boy would come out as a 4-8+8-4.  I favor that idea, and generally use it, but have NOT done so here; it would unnecessarily complicate the table and confuse matters.  By that standard, a rigid frame PRR T1 would still be a 4-4-4-4 and the S1 "Big Engine" a 6-4-4-6 while the DD1 mated pair would be a 4-4-0+0-4-4 and the GG1 and UP Challenger 4-6+6-4s.

WHYTE SYSTEM of
LOCOMOTIVE CLASSIFICATION

Effective Date: 18 Sep 1999/29 Oct 2016

STEAM LOCOMOTIVES - LEADING and TRAILING TRUCKS

DRIVERS     0-X-0  0-X-2  0-X-4  0-X-6  2-X-0  2-X-2  2-X-4  2-X-6  2-X-12   4-X-0  4-X-2  4-X-4  4-X-6  6-X-0  6-X-6

X-2-X 0-2-0 0-2-2 - - 2-2-0 2-2-2 2-2-4 - - 4-2-0 4-2-2 4-2-4 - 6-2-0 - [1] Rocket Planet Bicycle [2] [3] [4] [5] Crampton

X-4-X 0-4-0 0-4-2 0-4-4 - 2-4-0 2-4-2 2-4-4 2-4-6 - 4-4-0 4-4-2 4-4-4 4-4-6 - - [6] Vulcan Forney* [7] Columbia [8] [9] American Atlantic [10] [11]

X-6-X 0-6-0 0-6-2 0-6-4 0-6-6 2-6-0 2-6-2 2-6-4 2-6-6 - 4-6-0 4-6-2 4-6-4 4-6-6 - - 6-Cpld. Bogie* Mogul Prairie Adriatic Bogie* 10-Whl. Pacific [11a] Forney*

X-8-X 0-8-0 0-8-2 0-8-4 - 2-8-0 2-8-2 2-8-4 2-8-6 - 4-8-0 4-8-2 4-8-4 4-8-6 - 6-8-6 8-Cpld. Union [11b] Consolidation [11c] [12] Bogie* 12-Whl.[12a] [13] [14] [15] S2 [16]

X-10-X 0-10-0 0-10-2 - - 2-10-0 2-10-2 2-10-4 - - 4-10-0 4-10-2 - - - - 10-Cpld. Union [16a] Decapod [17] [18] Mastodon[18a] [19]

X-12-X 0-12-0 0-12-2 - - 2-12-0 2-12-2 2-12-4 - - - 4-12-2 - - - - [P&R] [Euro.] [Euro.] [Euro.] [Euro.] Union Pacific

X-14-X - - - - - 2-14-2 - - - - - - - - - [20]

DRIVERS 0-X-0 0-X-2 0-X-4 0-X-6 2-X-0 2-X-2 2-X-4 2-X-6 2-X-12 4-X-0 4-X-2 4-X-4 4-X-6 6-X-0 6-X-6 DRIVERS 0-X-X-0 0-X-X-4 2-X-X-0 2-X-X-4 2-X-X-12 4-X-X-2 4-X-X-6 (duplex) 0-X-X-2 0-X-X-6 2-X-X-2 2-X-X-6 4-X-X-0 4-X-X-4 6-X-X-6

X-2-2-X 0-2-2-0 - - - 2-2-2-0 2-2-2-2 - - - - - - - - [21] [22] [23]

X-4-4-X 0-4-4-0 - - - 2-4-4-0 2-4-4-2 - - - - - 4-4-4-4 - 6-4-4-6 "Duplex" [Euro.] [Little R.] [24] S1 [25]

X-4-6-X 0-4-6-0 - - - 2-4-6-0 2-4-6-2 - - - - 4-4-6-2 4-4-6-4 4-4-6-6 - - [26] [27] Q2 [28] [29]

X-4-10-X 0-4-10-0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - [30]

X-6-4-X - - - - - - - - - - - 4-6-4-4 - - Q1 [31]

X-6-6-X 0-6-6-0 - - - 2-6-6-0 2-6-6-2 2-6-6-4 2-6-6-6 - 4-6-6-0 4-6-6-2 4-6-6-4 4-6-6-6 - "Old Maude Allegheny Challenger [32] Blue Ridge [40]

X-6-8-X - - - - 2-6-8-0 - - - - - - - - - [GN]

X-8-6-X - - - - 2-8-6-0 - - - - - - - - - [33]

X-8-8-X 0-8-8-0 - - - 2-8-8-0 2-8-8-2 2-8-8-4 - - - 4-8-8-2 4-8-8-4 - - Angus Yellowstone [SP AC] Big Boy

X-10-10-X - - - - 2-10-10-2 - - - - - 4-10-10-6 - - - [SF, Vgn] [34]

DRIVERS 0-X-X-X-0 0-X-X-X-4 2-X-X-X-0 2-X-X-X-4 2-X-X-X-12 4-X-X-X-2 4-X-X-X-6 (triplex) 0-X-X-X-2 0-X-X-X-6 2-X-X-X-2 2-X-X-X-6 4-X-X-X-0 4-X-X-X-4 6-X-X-X-6

X-8-8-8-X - - - - - 2-8-8-8-2 - - - - - - - - [35] 2-8-8-8-4 [36]

X-12-12-12-X - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2-12-12-12-6 [37]

X-4-6-8-10-X - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2-4-6-8-10-12 [A] [38]

The European system counts axles instead of wheels, such that the American type is a 2-2-0, the PRR S1 a 3-2-2-3, and the Erie Triplex a 1-4-4-4-1, and the Virginian Triplex a 1-4-4-4-2 (their electrics and diesels are done very differently, indeed, as we shall see).


WHYTE SYSTEM OF LOCOMOTIVE CLASSIFICATION Effective Date: 19 Sep 1999/29 Oct 2016

STEAM LOCOMOTIVES - NOTES

(formal Class names are underlined@):

1.   0-2-0#        Burdick Nightmare (NMRA).
2.   2-2-4         CNJ; South Shore RR/LIRR "Pewit".
3.   4-2-0         LI "Ariel" and "Post Boy", "Lafayette".
4.   4-2-2         Stirling Single, P&R Bicycle, PRR Z6s Arctic#.
5.   4-2-4         Bristol & Exeter, SP "C. P. Huntington".
6.   0-4-0         Goat, Docksider (0-4-0T), 4-Coupled.
7.   2-4-0         Virginia & Truckee "Bowker";
                    PRR Class Ynot Conliquidation.
8.   2-4-4         Mason Bogie*, Tea Kettle.
9.   2-4-6         Bogie*, Forney*.
10.  4-4-4         Reading (Rdg.), Jubilee (CP).
11.  4-4-6         Forney*, PW&B "Annawomscutt" (Taunton, 1887).
11a. 4-6-4         Hudson (NYC), Baltic (Milw.).
11b. 0-8-4         Union (first, El Gobernador rebuilt to 0-10-2) - see 16a.
11c. 2-8-2         Mikado (BLW), MacArthur (WWII), Mudhen (D&RGW).
12.  2-8-4         Berkshire (B&A), Lima (IC), Kanawha (C&O).
12a. 4-8-0         Mastodon (CP/SP first, only) - see 18a.
13.  4-8-2         Mountain (C&O), Mohawk (NYC).
14.  4-8-4         Northern (NP), Niagara (NYC), Pocono (D&H), GS,
                     Greenbriar (C&O), Dixie (NC&StL**), Wyoming (LV).
15.  4-8-6         Last Lima Super Power engine,
                     drawn up in 1949 but never built.
16.  6-8-6         PRR S2 Steam Turbine.
16a. 0-10-2        Union (El Gobernador, rebuilt from 0-8-4) - see 11b.
17.  2-10-2        Santa Fe (SF), Central (IC).
18.  2-10-4        Texas (T&P), Colorado (CB&Q), Selkirk (CN).
18a. 4-10-0        Mastodon (class - see 12a).
19.  4-10-2        Overland (UP), Southern Pacific (SP).
20.  2-14-2        Russian engine, TRAINS, by ???.
20a. 4-14-4        Russian engine, 1935, Lugnash Works
21.  0-2-2-0       Mount Washington Cog Railway engine;
                     Adams & Price "PERDIDO" #2.
22.  2-2-2-0       Webb Teutonic.
23.  2-2-2-2       Fairlie, Webb.
24.  4-4-4-4       PRR T1 Duplex; B&O 5600 "George H. Emerson".
25.  6-4-4-6       PRR S1 Duplex.
26.  2-4-6-0{#?}   LIRR Duplex plans in Ron Ziel "STEEL RAILS TO
                     THE SUNRISE", pp. 314-315, first edition.
27.  4-4-6-2       SF; B&O 7400.
28.  4-4-6-4       PRR Q2 Duplex.
29.  4-4-6-6       Russian engine, TRAINS, by ???.
30.  0-4-10-0      per Loco Profile 6.
31.  4-6-4-4       PRR Q1 Duplex.
32.# 4-6-6-6       Canandaigua So. Super Allegheny (J.Armstrong).
33.  2-8-6-0       LIRR; B&O EL-5A.
34.  4-10-10-6     CD&P, RR Museum plans, Golden, CO.
35.  2-8-8-8-2     Erie Triplex "Matt Shay" (etc.).
36.  2-8-8-8-4     Virginian Triplex.
37.# 2-12-12-12-6  P&CCRR/BW Triplex "J. M. Whyte".
38.# 2-4-6-8-10-12 P&CCRR/BW Multiplex "I. M. Sikh".
39.# 4-8-8-6#      PRR/BW Kittaning.
40.  2-6-6-6       C&O Allegheny/VGN Blue Ridge.

* - Many small engines made by Mason and by Forney and by others on the Bogie principle, a trailing truck articulated to the main driving truck, were based on the designs of Fairlie in England.

In addition, there are the Southern Railway 2-8-2+2-8-0 Mikados and 2-10-2+2-8-0 Decapods made by putting old Consolidation engines under the tenders and the many 4-6-2+2-6-4 through 4-8-4+4-8-4 Beyer Garrats.

The Santa Fe and the Virginian also managed to build, and then quickly separate, a series of improbable 2-10-10-2 locomotives!

@ Other class name firsts: Allegheny (C&O), Angus (CN/CP?), Atlantic (AC/ACL), Big Boy (UP), Blue Ridge (VGN), Challenger (UP), Consolidation (LV), Decapod (LV), Mastodon (GN/NP), North Western (C&NW 4-4-2), Pacific (MP), Union (0-10-2 URR), Yellowstone (NP).

** - The 4-8-4 name, Dixie, was given by the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Railway (the Dixie Line) to its famed J3 class (28 Dec 2006).

There are many more such class names listed, with more (and, possibly, more accurate) derivations on Wes Barris's Locomotive Classifications page; I have not even attempted to cross-check or cross-reference these pages (this one was done for my fun and edification, only, and I have reproduced it here by request for your fun and ease of reference).

# - Certain models shown require a grain of salt or two (or three or four!); they are indicated "#" and are often associated with the Berlinerwerke Apocrypha, so I must leave credibility to your discretion.  I strongly recommend that you check your leg to see if it is as long as my nose!  However, some of the more "fantastical" engines listed are (were) very real indeed, no matter how far-fetched they may seem and photos of many appear in my Articulateds (and Duplexii) section.


When electric locomotives were introduced late in the 19th Century, the Whyte System of Classification was doctored (not by Whyte, as far as I know) to suit.

A non-powered axle was designated as "1" and a powered axle as "A".  Muliple axles simply ran up the Arabic numeral and Roman alphabet scales: 1, 2, 3, 4, and A, B, C, D, etc., and articulation was shown with a plus sign as ooOOO+OOOoo (PRR GG1 as ref.).  Missing leading and trailing axles were ignored.

Thus the familiar steam designations became a bit more complex:

OO B ¦ ooOOoo 2-B-2
OOO C ¦ ooOOOoo 2-C-2
oOOo 1-B-1 ¦ ooOOOOoo 2-D-2
oOOOo 2-B-2 ¦ ooOOO+OOOoo 2-C+C-2 (GG1, etc.)
oOOOOo 2-C-2 ¦ ooOOOO-OOOOoo (4-8-8-4 Big Boy - steam, ref.)
ooOOOOoo 2-D-2 ¦ ooOOOO+OOOOoo 2-D+D-2
ooOOOOoo 2-D-2 ¦ ooOOOO+OOOOoo B-D+D-B GN W-2 (all axles powered)


Along came diesel-electrics and turbine-electrics and the electric system was applied almost exactly:

OO B ¦ OO-OO B-B (GPs, F's, FA/FBs)
OOO C ¦ OOO-OOO C-C (SDs, Es, PA/PBs)
OOOO D ¦ OOOO-OOOO D-D (DD35/40-series)
ooOO 2-B ¦ ooOOOO+OOOOoo 2-D+D-2 Baldwin Centipede

Idler axles are "1", so the ALCo PA/PB trucks are A1A's and the engine an A1A-A1A and the EMD FL-9s are B-A1A, no less, as were the LIRR's FM CPA20-5 and CPA24-5 2000- and 2400-series C-Liners.


The European system also counts axles instead of wheels, such that the usual B-B is a Bo-Bo and C-C is a Co-Co, etc., whil(e)(st) a 2-C+C-2 Crocodile is a 1-Co-Co-1 (28 Dec 2006).


You may wish to visit the Railroad Continuation Page, et seq.

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of this series of Railroad pages.


LEGACY

  What happens to all this when I DIE or (heaven forfend!) lose interest?  See LEGACY.

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