S. Berliner, III's sbiii.com LIRR #401 and Sister Boxcabs Page keywords = boxcab LIRR Long Island 401 ALCo GE IR I-R American Locomotive Company General Electric Ingersoll Rand 402 Brill Baldwin Westinghouse 403 oil electric diesel engine rail road CNJ 1000 stinkpot Schenectady Baldwin Westinghouse WEMCO AGEIR distillate Campbell "

Updated:   25 Feb 2014; 22:45 ET
[Page converted 13 Mar 2010;

    original AT&T Worldnet Website begun 30 May 1996.]
Update info on the top on ALL pages for your convenience.

URL:  http://sbiii.com/boxcabs1.html
[was at "home.att.net/~Berliner-Ultrasonics/boxcabs1.html"]

S. Berliner, III
Consultant in Ultrasonic Processing
"changing materials with high-intensity sound"

[consultation is on a fee basis]

Technical and Historical Writer, Oral Historian
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Rail, Auto, Air, Ordnance, and Model Enthusiast
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note - The vast bulk of my massive Web presence (over 485 pages) had been hosted by AT&T's WorldNet service since 30 May 1996; they dropped WorldNet effective 31 Mar 2010 and I have had to scramble to transfer everything by then.  Everything's saved but all the links have to be changed, mostly by hand.  See my sbiii.com Transfer Page for any updates on this tedious process.

S. Berliner, III's


LIRR #401 and
100-ton Sisters
Boxcabs Page


I-R 60-ton Demo

A new type of locomotive!
Ingersoll-Rand 1925 Demonstrator #9681
(later CNJ #1000)
(ALCo builders photo S-1484 - source uncertain;
possibly from 1980s AAR flyer)




Oil-Electric ("Diesel") Locomotives

(American Locomotive Company - General Electric - Ingersoll-Rand)

INDEX to Boxcabs Pages:

note-rt.gif  The primary Boxcabs Index has been moved to a separate page, together with links and credits.

Boxcab Help - A service for boxcab afficionados,
posting reasonable questions (at my sole discretion).

There are now more than seventy-five (75) BOXCAB pages;
see the full INDEX, now on a separate page.

[A new "bugaboo" has reared its ugly head - complexity of organization -
see COMPLEXITY on my main index page.]



Tracing 29138 - Class Drawing for AA-2 (#401)

#401 Weight   new.gif (08 Jun 2013)
  LIRR #401 and 100-ton Sister Boxcabs continuation page 1 with the LIRR's excuse for a new #401!   majorrev.gif (24 Feb 2014)
    Train Shed Cyclopedia No, 20 on LIRR #401.   new (24 Feb 2014)
  LIRR #401 and 100-ton Sister Boxcabs Continuation page 2 with many "new" photos.
  majorrev.gif (24 Feb 2014)
    Train Shed Cyclopedia No, 20 on LIRR #401.   new (24 Feb 2014)

BOXCAB MODELING NOTES - moved to Boxcabs Models page 24 Feb 2000.

BOXCAB DIMENSIONS - moved to Boxcabs Models page 24 Feb 2000.

LIRR #401 and 100-ton Sisters Continuation Page 1

Westinghouse Catalog Data on #403.

EPILOGUE to #401 (moved from main #401 page 19 Oct 2001)

on #401 and #403 when new.

[First of all, I want to credit Bill Russell, Penny Bridge; we seem to be linking back and forth but he has the most compendious site about NY-area railroading, where most boxcabs lurked, with tons of information.

Second, take a look at Mark Laundry's Yard Limit Diesel Switcher Spotter's and Reference Guide, a site about early diesel switchers, especially a 1994 paper by Benn Coifman on " The Evolution of the Diesel Locomotive in the United States", with an excellent history of the ALCo-GE-IR consortium (on which I have drawn), as well as McKeen, Westinghouse/Baldwin, Hamilton/EMC/EMD, and Pullman's efforts.]

I must credit and thank the late John F. Campbell for much of the latest information about LIRR #401(1) and #402(2); since Sep 00, he had had an extremely detailed and accurate site focusing exclusively on the earliest history of the ALCo-GE-IR (AGEIR) locos, his "ALCO / General Electric / Ingersoll-Rand (AGEIR) Diesel-Electric Locomotives" site.  I heartily recommend it to you!  John Campbell had since added a complete roster of all the ALCo-GE-IR boxcab locos built in the first production run, totalling 33 units, from 1925 to 1930, but not the later Bi- and Tri-Power or GE-IR units.

Some of what follows is duplicated deliberately from the original BOXCABS page.

The first production diesel locomotive, then called an "oil electric" locomotive, was one of four built for speculation; the first was fired up and ran in December 1923 and was released for demonstration in June 1924.  The first unit sold went to the Central Railroad of New Jersey (CNJ) in 1924.  It was built by a consortium of American Locomotive Company (ALCo), one of the world's largest steam locomotive manufacturers (itself an agglomeration of many smaller, but very significant, steam engine builders going back to the 1850s), the General Electric Company, already a well-recognized manufacturer of electric locomotives and components for electrics (and in co-operation with ALCo on these since the 1890s), and Ingersoll-Rand, a major builder of gasoline and diesel motors (and famed for its air compressors).  After the initial four were sold, another eleven were built.

Most of these early units were built for service in and around New York harbor's many "vest-pocket" marine terminal yards (CNJ, PRR, Erie, B&O, D&LW, etc.).  A few went to other harbor railroads and to major industries (Ford, IR, etc.) for in-house yard work.  The Long Island's first, #401, was a road switcher, built for mainline service!

That first engine, CNJ #1000, not only started the irresistible swing to dieselization, it also spawned a small family of boxcabs which the author finds fascinating.  Originally, they came in two sizes, both with virtually identical bodies and fittings, with slightly-rounded roofs and flat ends (looking very much like boxcars with windows - thus "boxcab"); 60-ton locos with a 300HP I-R oil engine, and 100-ton locos with two 300HP I-R oil engines.  The first units also were fitted with tube radiators mounted symmetrically at each end of the roof and curved to fit.



401 in Z-scale 1:220 1000 in Z-scale 1:220 LIRR 401                    CNJ 1000

Z-Scale (1:220) Drawings

(This is no longer just a drawing!
See Even More Z on Z-scale page 5.)

The World's First Production Diesel Road Switcher

Also the first diesel to haul a revenue train on a long-distance run

The late, belovèd Richie Harrison (see bibliography), LIRR engineman, said #401 was fondly called the "Stinkpot!"

LIRR #401 - thumbnail of 258+Kb image!
[Photograph from Long Island Rail Road archives;
click on thumbnail image to bring up full 258Kb photograph.]

(refer to the beginning of this page and the preceding BOXCABS page
for information on predecessor units)

The above photo is from an LIRR publicity piece; it is reproduced in its entirety on LIRR cont. page 2.

Here she is on her maiden voyage, departing from GE's Erie, Pennsylvania, plant on December 15, 1925, at 07:15, with a riding coach and four of the five boxcars showing (the fifth boxcar and the caboose are, unfortunately, out of the field of view):

#401 1st Run
(Photograph from John F. Campbell Collection - reproduced by permission - all rights reserved)

As of 01 Jul 2000, I was back from a trip to finish documenting the last of the surviving U.S. boxcabs, during which I ran across I-R documents showing drawings and more photos of #401!  Stay tuned!

Also, I now (19 Aug 2000) have my copy of the TRAIN SHED CYCLOPEDIA No. 43, "Diesel and Oil Electrics from Westinghouse (1930) and Ingersoll-Rand (1936)", with "Diesel Electric Locomotives in the United States, As Originated and Developed by Ingersoll-Rand, 11 Broadway, New York" {undated, but newest loco put in service as of Feb. 1936 with no service time as of publication, thus issued Feb. 1936} (40 pp.).  Page 54 therein shows #401 and lists both #401 and {second} #402 as 108 ton engines, placed in operation in February 1926 and September 1928, respectively.

I should mention here that predecessor Class AA-1 was that first-ever PRR electric experimental boxcab engine, "Phoebe", #10001, that proved out the concept of third-rail electrification for Penn Station and then worked the car floats under LIRR letterboards as LIRR #323 from May 1916 until sent for scrap in July 1937.

[For more on #323 and other LIRR boxcab electrics,
see the Electric Boxcabs page (et seq., which cover electric boxcabs).]

IR Demo #8835

In February of 1925, the first diesel to run on the Long Island Rail Road was Ingersoll-Rand's demonstrator, #8835 (the Jay Street Connecting RR is on Long Island, geographically, but not part of the LIRR).  It was run against LIRR #199, a Class B-53 (non-Pennsy) 0-6-0.  Results were favorable and I-R made an offer on 27 April 1925 to produce a 100-ton, 600-hp oil-electric switching locomotive for $100,000.  For an additional $1,000, provision for a novel new concept, multiple unit operation (!), could be provided.  LIRR #401, serial no. 66085, IR carbody model B6-1, GE s/n 9740, 102-ton, LIRR Class AA-2 (see AA-1 above), was completed in November of that year under shop order #1494.  The locomotive made history when it delivered itself with a trainload of spare parts directly from GE's Erie, Pennsylvania, shop to the LIRR's Morris Park shop in Richmond Hill, a distance of 537 miles, thus pulling the world's first revenue freight over the road.  The earlier runs by the GE-IR 1924 demonstrator and Baldwin experimental #58501 were not really revenue runs by a production boxcab and NYC #1550, a 500-hp BIG mother, which worked the Putnam Line into the 1940s and is claimed as the first successful road diesel (as opposed to the first road switcher, which was #401).

Louis Marre (1995, page 409, see Boxcabs Bibliography) claims that the Westinghouse CNR #9000 boxcab pair was "the first large road diesel in North America"; that may well be, if you discount road switchers, but LIRR #401 was certainly the first to run long-distance with a real train for revenue (albeit to avoid paying another road for the service), not merely as a demonstrator.

  Much of the foregoing (and following) detailed information about LIRR #401 is largely based on John Scala's Diesels of the Sunrise Trail, The Weekend Chief Publishing Company, Mineola, New York, 1984 (ISBN 0-9612814-0-5), plus information from Pinkepank (1967) and Marre (1995), plus that on John Campbell's site and in the author's files.

I have been trying for years to establish whether the strut or bar or plate which runs along the underside of each truck sideframe of several early 100-ton locomotives, and which is die-straight on the 60-ton locos, is bent only downward in the vertical plane or also, as I have long suspected, outward in the lateral plane.  John F. Campbell was kind enough to send me a detailed photo of the truck which tantalizes but does not really resolve the question:

LIRR #401 Truck
(Photograph from John F. Campbell Collection - reproduced by permission - all rights reserved)

On 21 Aug 00, John wrote, "Both the 60 & 100 ton AGEIR early units had 7' 2" wheelbase trucks, but those used on the 100 ton units were built more substantially to accomodate the additional weight on each wheel and the GE-69-C motors.  The bottom strap begins to bulge outward and slightly downward, starting at the last bolt... coming towards center from the journal... and begins a more gradual tapering back inward at about the point where the leaf spring ends.  These bulges and slightly tapered downward center of these cast retaining straps were to accomodate the more substantial leaf springs on the 100 ton trucks."

I note with interest, however, that the same bottom strap on LIRR #402 is bent downward the same as on #401 but does NOT have the outward "kinks" (bulges); it looks as if the strap is wider all the way across, front-to-rear.

LIRR  #403
probably taken under the Kearney, New Jersey, hill, near Manhattan Transfer.)

LIRR #401 was followed briefly in 1926 by an unsuccessful Brill 80-ton gasoline boxcab, #402 (first, Class AA-3, s/n 22315), with twin gasoline engines, which was built in January and returned after two weeks (without title having transferred to the LIRR), and then by paired ("semi-permanently-coupled") Baldwin-Westinghouse 330HP 87-ton (each) oil-electric boxcabs #403A/B, "Mike and Ike" (s/n 60185/6), LIRR Class AA-4, in September of 1927, which were later rebuilt to run as separate units, probably at their December 1929 rebuild; these were used in the pocket yards, such as the LIRR's Pidgeon Street yard in Queens and the PRR's North 4th Street yard on the Brooklyn waterfront (see photo, below).  Next, the LIRR went back to ALCo-GE-IR in 1928 for a second twin-engined (600HP), 109-ton boxcab, Model B6-4 #402 (second), s/n 67330 (GE s/n 10465), LIRR Class AA-3, with a unique, one-off body with slightly rounded ends with end doors (the only one*); 6' shorter than the 401 (per Ron Zeil in his "The Long Island Rail Road in Early Photographs"); #402/2 was completed in October@ of that year.  Both #401 and second #402 ran into the '50s; #401 was rebuilt at Erie, Pennsylvania, in September 1927, and perhaps this is when she was retrofitted with the GE conical radiator housings.  #402 was scrapped in 1951 and #401 was scrapped ca. 1958.  I note, however, from later photographs, that in its waning years, 401 was also equipped, for some reason, with stack extensions about 1' long and still another kind of (cross-draft) radiator.  The next engines which came along starting in 1945 were a BLW AS-6, five ALCo S-1's, and a BLW AS-6m, all of which were hood units.

* - but see RRL #502, below.

This picture, courtesy of Don Ross (Don's Rail Photos), shows the transverse fans and the stack extensions quite clearly (thanks, Don):

LIRR #401 - D. Ross
(Photo from Dave Ross collection, by specific permission - all rights reserved)
[Thumbnail image - click on picture for larger image.]

@ - There are two other problems here; I-R shows both #401 and #402/2 as 108 tons and, if #402/2 was completed in October, how did she get placed in operation (per I-R) in September?

Tracing 29138 - Class Drawing for AA-2 (#401)

Finally (13 Feb 2004), after many years of fruitless searching, I turned up my copy in a folder that had slipped between two Pendaflex folders in my files!  It is a "B"-size drawing, 11" x 17", NOT the 8½" x 11" "A"-size sheet for which I've been looking for so many years.]

Tracing 29138, apparently an LIRR drawing, not a PRR drawing) is the Class Drawing for Class AA-2 (consisting solely of the #401).  It is undated but clearly post-dates the Sep 1927 rebuilding at GE's Erie works because the stacks have been extended and the four original lateral fin-tube radiators have been replaced with two GE transverse-fan forced-draft radiators:

AA-2 Class Drawing
(Copy from LIRR Engineering Dept. ca. 1957; S. Berliner, III collection - all rights reserved)
[Thumbnail image - click on picture for a VERY larger (2Mb!) image.]

[Note that the LIRR used a hyphen in the class number, unlike the parent PRR.]

This is an historic document and I am thrilled to have recovered it!  It was too big for my scanner, so I had to the scan it in three sections and piece them ever so carefully; the combined scan was 8.9Mb, the pieced scan 2.8Mb, and the final version is still 2Mb!  In the interest of accuracy, I am donating that much storage instead of crunching the drawing.  In fact, I'll go one further step; click HERE for a full-tracing (commercial) scan at 861Kb (but I doubt you'll see any advantage).

Whoa, Nellie!  Let's look at that drawing again!  There, right smack in the middle, under the length dimensions - the weight!  It's

"203,300 LBS"!

That's 101.65 tons.  Of course, that wasn't in 1925; it was after she had extended stacks and transverse forced-draft radiators installed, probably in Sep 1927, but none of that should account for EIGHT tons difference (or even six)!   new.gif (08 Jun 2013)

John Campbell speculated on the 100/102/108 ton ratings on his site and furnished me with these two photos of #402/2:

LIRR #402 LIRR #402 MDMcC
[Unprovenanced image (left) and Malcolm D. McCarter image (right),
both courtesy of J. F. Campbell - all rights reserved.
Thumbnail images - click on pictures for larger images.]

John Campbell advised that the LIRR thus bought AGEIR's very first and very last twin-engined units.

LIRR #403 at PRR No. 4th. St. yard
(photo of one 403 at PRR 4th Street Yard -
photo from Bill Russell's Penny Bridge)

The late Richie Harrison took a blurry picture at Morris Park of LIRR #403B, with #403A barely visible, with a box camera 'way back; Art Huneke was kind enough to furnish an undated print on 26 Aug 00 and allow it's reproduction here:

LIRR #403B at Morris Park
(undated R. Harrison photo of 403B at Morris Park -
photo from A. Huneke collection - all rights reserved)

  Louis A. Marre, in "Diesel Locomotives: The First 50 Years" (1995, see Boxcabs Bibliography) shows the LIRR #403A and B married pair on page 407; Westinghouse's first boxcab venture (with Baldwin carbodies and 6-cylinder Beardmore diesels).

  John Scala's "Diesels of the Sunrise Trail" (see Boxcabs Bibliography) has an uncaptioned later photo of #401 and one of #402 (first) in the Philly area on the PRR on page 22 and a photo of Ike and Mike at Morris Park on page 23 and one on page 140 of Ike or Mike (it's probably serial number 60186) still working away in July 1953 at Standard Slag Co's. Crystal Springs, Ohio, gravel pit.  John has a shot of #402 (second) on page 24 and also shows miniature electric boxcab #322 on page 6 and #323 "Phoebe", the first electric (when on the PRR) and #320 and #322:2 mini-electrics on page 7; on pages 8, 9, and 10, he pictures 0-C-0 electric boxcab #325 and DD1 boxcab electric pairs #358 and #352.

  Ron Ziel, in "Steel Rails to the Sunrise" (First Edition, 1965, see Boxcabs Bibliography) has a late shot of #401 (with the stack extenders) and one of one #403 unit at the Pennsy's North 4th Street yard in Brooklyn on page 211.

Now, also from Don Ross, by his special courtesy on 17 Jun 02, here is the #403-A at Iron & Steel Products Co., a Chicago area firm dealing in used railroad equipment, in 1947):

LIRR #403-A at Iron & Steel
(J. Sheperd 21 Dec 79 LPC #1 photo courtesy of D. Ross - all rights reserved to source.)
[Thumbnail image; click on photo for larger image.]

It had been rebuilt in December 1929 and sold to I&SP in September 1945 and was later sold in 1948 to an unknown buyer (could that have been Standard Slag?).

In fairness to Brill, it should be noted that they rebuilt first 402 and sold it to the GT&W where it served long and well (see the Other Boxcabs page for details and photos).

That #402/2, the second 100-tonner, was almost identical to Red River Lumber Co. #502, which, until 17 Apr 00, I could not picture here; thanks to Jim Bryant of Nevada Rails, here is RRL #502:

RRL #502 hauling logs RRL #502 being sold
Photos courtesy of James B. Bryant

Although no dates or locations are given, Jim writes that, "the fellow in the door of the {right} photo is from the steel company, which is buying the No. 502".  Well, we know from Marre that she became Armco #E103; now all I have to do is find out when.

Note that #502 has clearly rounded ends, also, as does the sole surviving 100-tonner, Foley Bros. #110-1, but those on LIRR #402 are far less pronouncedly rounded.

As my boxcab coverage grows and pages overload, I create newer, more specialized ones; see my Boxcabs page 6 - RRLCo #502 for more on the 100/108-ton double-motored units.

On 15 Mar 1998, I was told this engaging story about #401.  It seems that when she was brand new, the I-R rep came in to the Morris Park roundhouse one evening and told the Foreman, Leslie Dettling, that he was through and wanted her out on the road in the morning for a final shakedown.  No problem!  Although Dettling hated the new-fangled contraption (and eventually quit rather than put up with the stinkpots), he oiled around, topped up water and sand, and went to top up the fuel tank.  Well, this meant yanking up one of two access plates above the fuel (distillate or oil) storage tank, inserting a suction pump supply pipe, and sucking up the fuel and pumping it into Stinkpot's tank.  Well, it seems that the LIRR geniuses put the storage tank right down in a sewer, where the sewer water would keep the oil cool.  When the I-R rep turned up in the morning, Stinkpot wouldn't start.  After much vain cranking and probably a lot of cussin', the manuals were consulted, to no avail.  You guessed?  No fair!  Yup; the access plate was the one to the sewer, not the supply tank, and #401 was tanked up with sewage for her last run before entering LIRR revenue service!  "STINKPOT", indeed!

LONG ISLAND RAIL ROAD INFORMATION BULLETIN - Art Huneke, noted LIRR historian and ephemera collector sent me copies of the LONG ISLAND RAILROAD BULLETIN {note the misspelling of "Rail Road"}, Vol. IV, No. 4, of Jan. 1926, covering introduction of the #401, and Vol. V, No. 6, of July-August 1928, covering introduction of the #403; this coverage has been moved to #401 continuation page 1.

BOXCAB MODELING NOTES -   Moved to the Boxcabs Models page, "Notes", 24 Feb 2000.


  Moved to the Boxcabs Models page, "Dimensions", 24 Feb 2000.

EPILOGUE to #401

  Moved to the LIRR #401 Continuation page 19 Oct 2001.

Freudenreich Feinwerktechnik {new URL Dec 2001} makes a fabulous 60-ton Boxcab model, with and without end doors, in Z (1:220) scale (with a flywheel, no less!); see my Freudenreich Z Scale Page.  If we could have gotten about 5 or 6 people together, he'd have made a stretched, early 100-ton version (with correct window spacing and roof detail); as it was, I had to get a custom, one-off chassis and body for myself for a microscopic #401 (see Boxcabs).  [There is a second chassis and body available!]  Now, about #402 - - - !  Not to mention B-W #403A/B - - - !  All are in work as of 15 Jan 2003.

For more on the only surviving 100-ton (nominal - actually 108-ton) oil-electric boxcab, Foley Bros. #110-1, now preserved at the Feather River Rail Society's Portola museum, click here.

William E. Miller, historian of the Electric Lines in Southern Ontario, ends his e-mail messages a with a great keyboard graphic (see the bottom of my Electric Boxcabs Continuation Page; I have taken the liberty of doctoring it to make a vague representation of #401:

___  ___  ___ _________ ___  ___  ___
||_|      |_|       =      |_|  [_] |_| |
|401          LONG  = ISLAND    | |     |
_|(O)\\=//(O)     |_|_|_|  |_|(O)\\=//(O)|_

See the continuation of this page with additional information on
LIRR #401, #402, and #403a and 403b.
More to follow, including more detailed dimensions, pictures
(especially when I find my LIRR AA-2 Class drawing),
and more links (that might even work!).


  What happens to all this when I DIE or (heaven forfend!) lose interest?  See LEGACY.

There are now more than seventy-five (75) BOXCAB pages;
see the full INDEX, now on a separate page.


See Copyright Notice on primary home page.

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To tour the Boxcabs pages in sequence, the arrows take you from the Boxcabs index page to this first Boxcabs page, to continuation pages 3 and up, then 100-tonner LIRR #401 and her sisters, survivor boxcabs (with map) and survivor notes, survivor CNJ #1000 (the very first), Ingersoll-Rand boxcabs (with instruction manual), other (non-ALCo/GE/I-R) boxcabs, Baldwin-Westinghouse boxcabs, odd boxcabs, and finally model boxcabs.

© Copyright S. Berliner, III - 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2010, 2011, 2013  - all rights reserved.

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